Shehin malamin da ya yi rubutu kan yaduwar halittu shekaru 1000 kafin Darwin - DWGUNSAU'S BLOG

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Saturday, 2 March 2019

Shehin malamin da ya yi rubutu kan yaduwar halittu shekaru 1000 kafin Darwin




Al-Jahiz ya rubuta Litattafan nazarin rayuwar dabbobi har kashi 7
Mahangar fahimtar masanin kimiyya dan Birtaniya kan tushen rayuwa (ko yaduwar halittu ta evolution or evolutionary theory) na daya daga cikin muhimman al'amura a kimiyyar zamani.

Mahangar cewa nau'ukan halittu na samun sauyi ta hanyar yanayin da ake yi wa lakabi da zabin sauyin yaduwar halittu, lamarin ya yi matukar sauya yadda muke fahimtar zaman halittu a duniya.

A littafin da ya wallafa a shekarar 1859, mai taken Asalin nau'ukan halittu, Darwin ya bayyana tushen yaduwar halittu da cewa, "mabubbugar (yaduwar hayayyafa) da ta samu sauyi," inda ya nuna mabambantan halittu, tare da yadda tushen asalinsu ya bubbugo daga magabata (wadanda suka gabace su - bayan da suka haife su).

Sai dai kuma ita kanta mahangar tushen asalin yaduwar halittu na da magabaciyarta a duniyar Musulmi.

Zabin sauyin yaduwar halittu
Kusan shekaru 1000 kafin zuwan Charles Darwin, an yi wani Musulmi masanin falsafa (mahangar tunani) da ke zaune a kasar Iraki, wanda ake kira da al-Jahiz lokacin da yake rubuta wani littafi kan yadda dabbobi ke sauya yanayinsu ta hanyar zabi na kashin kai.

Hakikanin sunansa Abu Usman Amr Bahr Alkanani al-Basri, amma tarihi na tunawa da shi a matsayin tambari da ya yi masa na al-Jahiz, wato ma'ana wanda kwayar idonsa ke da kaifin gani.


Wannan ba shi ne mafi kyawun lakabin da za a yi wa mutum, amma duk da haka al-Jahiz ya yi shuhura kan yadda akan yi ta nazarin littafinsa mai taken Kitab al-Hayawan (Littafin nazarin rayuwar dabbobi).

An haife shi a shekarar 776 bayan Al-Masihu a birnin Basra, da ke Kudancin Iraki, a wani zamanin da masu akidar Mutazilawa, wata mahangar addini da ke koyar da taddaburin (kai-kawon) juya akalar tunanin dan Adam, kuma ta samu gindin zama a yankin.

Daidai lokacin da Daular Abbasiyawa ta kai makurar zamanin mulkinta, an yi dimbin rubuce-rubucen masana fannonin ilimi, wadanda suka fassara fannonin ilimi daga harshen Girkanci zuwa Larabci,

suka kuma tafka muhawara kan harkokin da suka shafi addini da kimiyya da falsafa a Basra (wani birni a kasar Iraki), al'amarin da ya inganta tunanin al-Jahiz, ya taimaka masa wajen tsara dabarar mahangar fahimtarsa a fannin ilimi.



'Yan kasuwar kasar Sin (China) suka kawo takardar rubutu kasar Iraki, al'amarin da ya karfafa dabarunsa, ya inganta manufar fahimtar fannonin ilimi, yayin da matashi al-Jahiz ya fara rubutu a kan darussan fannonin ilimi daban-daban.

Fannonin ilimin da yake da sha'awa a kai sun hada kimiyya da mahangar taswirar fadin duniya (geography) da Falsafa (mahangar tunani da hikimar rayuwa) da nahawun larabci da adabi.

An yi kiyasin cewa ya wallafa littattafai 200 a rayuwarsa, amma daya bisa uku (1/3) ne kawai aka samu zuwa wannan zamanin namu.



Charles Darwin
Litattafan nazarin rayuwar dabbobi

Mafi shaharar aikinsa (littafin da ya wallafa), shi ne Rayuwar dabbobi, wanda aka tsara shi a matsayin kundin bayanai da ya tattaro bayanai game da nau'ukan dabbobi 350, al-Jahiz ya firfito da mahangar fahimtarsa, wadda kwatankwacinta ya yi daidai da Mahangar yaduwar halittu ta Darwin.

"Dabbobi na fafutikar rayuwa da samun kayan more rayuwa (abinci da makamantansu), ta yadda za su kare kawunansu kada a cinye su, har su samu su hayayyafa," al-Jahiz ya rubuta cewa, "muhalli na da tasirin ga halittu wajen bunkasarsu da samun sababbin dabi'u ko yanayi don tabbatar da rayuwa, sannan ya samar da sauyin fasalin sababbin nau'ukan halittu."

Sannan ya ce, "Dabbobin da suka rayu suka hayayyafa za su samu nasarar yada dabi'u (siffofi da al'adunsu) ga 'ya'yansu."

Ta bayana karara ga al-Jahiz cewa, rayuwa a wannan duniyar na tattare da fafutika ba kakkautawa don rayuwa, kuma wasu nau'ukan halittu suna da karfi fiye da wasu.

Labarai Masu Alaka
Labarai Masu Alaka


Don samun rayuwa, dabbobi na ta fafutikar dabarun samun abinci, ta yadda za su kauce wa kasancewa kalacin wasu ko a lakumesu (a cinye), har su samu su hayayyafa.

Wannan ne dalilin da ke tursasa musu samun sauyin yanayi daga wannan al'umma zuwa wata al'ummar (daga zamani zuwa wani zamanin).

Mahangar fahimtar al-Jahiz ta yi tasiri a alkiblar tunanin masanan Musulunci wadanda suka zo bayansa.

Litattafansa sun samu bibiyar nazari daga masanan da suka hada da al-Farabi da al-Arabi da al-Biruni da kuma Ibn Khaldun.

Dan Pakistan "Jagaban masu ruhin addini," Muhammad Iqbal, wanda ya fi shahara da Allama Iqbal, ya yi nazari kan muhimmancin al-Jahiz a tarin makalun da ya wallafa a shekarar 1930, inda ya rubuta cewa, "al- Jahiz ne ya bijiro da muhimman sauye-sauyen da ke damfare a rayuwar dabbobi sanadiyyar kaura (daga wani wuri zuwa wani) da sauyin muhalli."

'Mahangar koyarwar Annabi Muhammadu'

Gudunmuwar duniyar Musulunci game da tushen asalin yaduwar halittu ba boyayyiya ba ce tun daga karni na 19 a Turai. A gaskiya ma, wani da ya yi zamani tare da Charles Darwin, masanin kimiyya William Darper, ya yi bayani game da alkiblar mahangar koyarwar Annabi Muhammadu dangane da tushen asalin yaduwar halittu" cikin shekarar 1878.

Sai dai babu wata hujja da ke nuni da cewa Darwin ya bibiyi aikin (nazarin littafin) al-Jahiz, ko ma a ce ya san Larabci.



Wani Masanin tarihin nazarin samuwar halittu dan Birtaniya ya cancanci jinjina a matsayinsa na masanin kimiyya, wanda ya samar da mahangar warware badakalar sarkakiyar fahimtar yadda muke tunani game da duniya.

Wani dan jaridar da ke rubutu a Mujallar nazarin kimiyya, Ehsan Masood, wanda ya yi wa rediyon BBC shirin kundin bayanai mai taken Dangantakar Musulunci da Kimiyya.

A cewarsa, yana da matukar muhimanci a tuna sauran mutanen da suka bayar da gudunmuwar mahangar fahimtar tushen asalin yaduwar halittu a tarihi.

Tsarin halitta
Sannan ya yi nuni da cewa masu kai-kawo a mahangar tsarin halitta ba su wanzu a matsayin wani rukunin masana da suka yi fafutika a karni na tara a Iraki ba, zamanin Baghdad da Basra cibiyoyi ne da suka kasance a kan gaba wajen fadada ci gaban ilimin Musulunci.

"Masana kimiyya ba sa daukar tsawon sa'o'i suna nazarin litattafan da aka saukar (wa Ananbawa ba), ta yadda za su iya kawatantawa da ilimin da aka samu ta hanyar gudanar da bincike yanayin duniya," kamar yadda Ehsan Masood ya rubuta a makalarsa da ta yi bayani game da al-Jahiz a jaridar The Guardian ta kasar Birtaniya. "sabanin haka sun yi kokarin gano wasu abubuwa a kashin kansu."

Karshe dai irin kai-kawon da al-Jahiz yake yi don neman ilimi ne ya haifar da kawo karshen rayuwarsa. An ce yana da shekara 92, lokacin da ya yi kokarin dauko wani littafi daga jerin tarin dimbin littattafai, sai kawai suka rikito a kansa, inda suka halaka Musulmin da ya nakalci falsafa.


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